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Faq

  • What is Differential pricing?

    Pricing of an issue where one category is offered shares at a price different from the other category is called differential pricing. In DIP Guidelines differential pricing is allowed only if the securities to applicants in the firm allotment category is at a price higher than the price at which the net offer to the public is made. The net offer to the public means the offer made to the Indian public and does not include firm allotments or reservations or promoters contributions.
  • Who is a broker?

    A broker is a member of a recognized stock exchange, who is permitted to do trades on the screen-based trading system of different stock exchanges. He is enrolled as a member with the concerned exchange and is registered with SEBI.
  • What is the maximum brokerage that a broker can charge?

    The maximum brokerage that can be charged by a broker has been specified in the Stock Exchange Regulations and hence, it may differ from across various exchanges. As per the BSE & NSE Bye Laws, a broker cannot charge more than 2.5% brokerage from his clients.
  • What is Margin Trading Facility?

    Margin Trading is trading with borrowed funds/securities. It is essentially a leveraging mechanism which enables investors to take exposure in the market over and above what is possible with their own resources. SEBI has been prescribing eligibility conditions and procedural details for allowing the Margin Trading Facility from time to time.

    Corporate brokers with net worth of at least Rs.3 crore are eligible for providing Margin trading facility to their clients subject to their entering into an agreement to that effect. Before providing margin trading facility to a client, the member and the client have been mandated to sign an agreement for this purpose in the format specified by SEBI. It has also been specified that the client shall not avail the facility from more than one broker at any time.

    The facility of margin trading is available for Group 1 securities and those securities which are offered in the initial public offers and meet the conditions for inclusion in the derivatives segment of the stock exchanges.

    For providing the margin trading facility, a broker may use his own funds or borrow from scheduled commercial banks or NBFCs regulated by the RBI. A broker is not allowed to borrow funds from any other source.

    The "total exposure" of the broker towards the margin trading facility should not exceed the borrowed funds and 50 per cent of his "net worth". While providing the margin trading facility, the broker has to ensure that the exposure to a single client does not exceed 10 per cent of the "total exposure" of the broker.

    Initial margin has been prescribed as 50% and the maintenance margin has been prescribed as 40%.

    In addition, a broker has to disclose to the stock exchange details on gross exposure including name of the client, unique identification number under the SEBI (Central Database of Market Participants) Regulations, 2003, and name of the scrip.

    If the broker has borrowed funds for the purpose of providing margin trading facility, the name of the lender and amount borrowed should be disclosed latest by the next day.

    The stock exchange, in turn, has to disclose the scrip-wise gross outstanding in margin accounts with all brokers to the market. Such disclosure regarding margin-trading done on any day shall be made available after the trading hours on the following day.

    The arbitration mechanism of the exchange would not be available for settlement of disputes, if any, between the client and broker, arising out of the margin trading facility. However, all transactions done on the exchange, whether normal or through margin trading facility, shall be covered under the arbitration mechanism of the exchange.
  • What is the difference between cash EPS and EPS?

    Cash EPS takes into account the cash flow generated by a company on a per share basis, while EPS looks at the net income generated on a per share basis, for a given period. Like EPS, higher the cash EPS, better it is considered.

    Cash EPS = Operating cash flow for the period

    Weighted average number of equity shares outstanding

    Cash EPS can be computed from EPS by adjusting for depreciation, amortization of goodwill and other non-cash items such as deferred tax and intangibles.

    Source: sptulsian.com
  • How many days is the issue open?

    As per Clause 8.8.1, Subscription list for public issues shall be kept open for at least 3 working days and not more than 10 working days. In case of Book built issues, the minimum and maximum period for which bidding will be open is 37 working days extendable by 3 days in case of a revision in the price band. The public issue made by an infrastructure company, satisfying the requirements in Clause 2.4.1 (iii) of Chapter II may be kept open for a maximum period of 21 working days. As per clause 8.8.2., Rights issues shall be kept open for at least 30 days and not more than 60 days.
  • Who decides the price of an issue?

    Indian primary market ushered in an era of free pricing in 1992. Following this, the guidelines have provided that the issuer in consultation with Merchant Banker shall decide the price. There is no price formula stipulated by SEBI. SEBI does not play any role in price fixation. The company and merchant banker are however required to give full disclosures of the parameters which they had considered while deciding the issue price. There are two types of issues one where company and LM fix a price (called fixed price) and other, where the company and LM stipulate a floor price or a price band and leave it to market forces to determine the final price (price discovery through book building process).
  • What does Open Interest mean?

    Open Interest is the total number of outstanding contracts held by market participants at the end of the day. Alternatively, it is the total number of futures contracts that have not yet been exercised (squared off) or expired.

    Open interest indicates the trend in the F&O market and measures the flow of money into the futures market. The open interest position represents the increase or decrease in the number of contracts for a day, and it is shown as a positive or negative number.

    Calculation of Open Interest:
    Each trade completed on the exchange has an impact upon the level of open interest for that day. There a three possibilities -


    1.One new buyer, one new seller (both parties initiating a new position) - open interest will increase by one contract
    2.One old buyer, one old seller (both parties are closing an existing/old position) - open interest will decline by one contract
    3.One old buyer, one new buyer (old trader passing off his position to a new trader) - open interest remains unchanged

    Increasing open interest means that new money is flowing into the marketplace. The result will be continuation of present trend (up, down or sideways).

    Declining open interest means that market is liquidating and implies prevailing price trend is coming to an end.

    Source: sptulsian.com
  • What is the procedure for getting a demat account?

    The FAQs relating to demat have been covered in the Investor Education section of the SEBI website in a separate head. They are available on the http://investor.sebi.gov.in/faq/dematfaq.html.
  • What is Record Date?

    Date set by a company on which the investor must own shares, to be eligible for dividend, share split, bonus, rights issue or other capital gains as declared / announced by the company. It is the date established by the company for determining the shareholders who are entitled to receive dividend, bonus or rights shares of the company.

    In this case, it is also important to know what an ex-date is. Ex-date is the date on which the seller, and not the buyer, of a stock will be entitled to a recently announced dividend, bonus or other corporate action. The ex-date is usually a business day prior to the record date, since T+2 trading cycle is followed for clearing and settlement of trades in India.

    Example:

    If record date for dividend is set by a company as 4th March, then those investors, whose names appear on the shareholder list of 4th March, as received by the company form the depository will be entitled to the dividend. Doing a back-calculation, for an investors name to feature in the 4th March shareholder list, he should be holding the shares two days prior to that date i.e. on 2nd March (due to T+2 cycle). Thus, those shareholders holding shares at end of day 2nd March, will be entitled to the dividend. The ex-date, in this case, will be 3rd March, a date on which the buyer will not be entitled to the dividend declared.

    Source: sptulsian.com

stocks glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Acid Test Ratio

    It is the ratio indicated by dividing a company\'s current assets by current liabilities. It reflects the financial strength of a company and hence called Acid test ratio.
  • Alpha

    Alpha measures the difference between a fund\'s actual returns and its expected performance, given its level of risk (as measured by beta). A positive alpha figure indicates the fund has performed better than its beta would predict. In contrast, a negative alpha indicates a fund has underperformed, given the expectations established by the fund\'s beta. Some investors see alpha as a measurement of the value added or subtracted by a fund\'s manager. There are limitations to alpha\'s ability to accurately depict a manager\'s added or subtracted value. In some cases, a negative alpha can result from the expenses that are present in the fund figures but are not present in the figures of the comparison index. Alpha is dependent on the accuracy of beta: If the investor accepts beta as a conclusive definition of risk, a positive alpha would be a conclusive indicator of good fund performance. Of course, the value of beta is dependent on another statistic, known as R-squared.
  • Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    The expenses incurred, during a particular year, by Asset Management Company for managing the funds.
  • Asset Allocation

    The process of diversifying the investments in different kinds of assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, cash in order to optimize risk.
  • Asset Allocation Fund

    A fund that spreads its portfolio among a wide variety of investments, including domestic and foreign stocks and bonds, government securities, gold bullion and real estate stocks. Some of these funds keep the proportions allocated between different sectors relatively constant, while others alter the mix as market conditions change.
  • Asset Management Company (AMC)

    A Company registered with SEBI, which takes investment/divestment decisions for the mutual fund, and manages the assets of the mutual fund.
  • Automatic Investment Plan

    A plan offered by most mutual funds where a small fixed amount is automatically deducted monthly from an investor\'s bank account and invested in the mutual fund of their choice.
  • Automatic Reinvestment

    An investment option for mutual fund unit holders in which the proceeds from either the fund\'s dividends or capital gains, or both, are automatically used to buy more units of the funds.