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Faq

  • What is a Call option?

    Call option gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to buy a given quantity of the underlying asset at a given price on or before a given future date.

    For e.g.: Buying 1 call option of ONGC 1250 30Dec2010 comprising 250 equity shares for Rs. 80 per call will give the buyer the right to buy 250 ONGC shares on or before 30th December 2010 at Rs. 1,250 per share, irrespective of the share price (in cash market). Since it is only a right and no obligation to buy, the buyer can let this right lapse, which will be the case when ONGC share price is less than Rs. 1,250 in cash market. In the above case, loss is limited to Rs. 80 while the gains are unlimited to the buyer.

    Rs. 80 paid is termed as option premium or the cost of purchasing 1 call option containing the pre-determined quantity of the underlying.

    Selling a call option gives the seller the obligation to sell a given quantity of the underlying asset at a given price on or before a given future date, when the right is exercised by the buyer. For a seller of call option, profit is limited to the premium earned while loss it unlimited, as the buyer can exercise his call option anytime till the expiry of contract.

    Source: sptulsian.com
  • What is a Preferential Issue?

    A preferential issue is an issue of shares or of convertible securities by listed companies to a select group of persons under Section 81 of the Companies Act, 1956 which is neither a rights issue nor a public issue. This is a faster way for a company to raise equity capital. The issuer company has to comply with the Companies Act and the requirements contained in Chapter pertaining to preferential allotment in SEBI (DIP) guidelines which inter-alia include pricing, disclosures in notice etc.
  • What is a Put option?

    Put option gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to sell a given quantity of the underlying asset at a given price on or before a given future date.

    For e.g.: Buying 1 put option of ONGC 1250 30Dec2010 comprising 250 equity shares for Rs. 15 per put, will give the buyer the right to sell 250 ONGC shares on or before 30th December 2010 at Rs. 1,250 per share, irrespective of the share price (in cash market). Since it is only a right and no obligation to sell, the buyer can let this right lapse, which will be the case when ONGC share price is more than Rs. 1,250 in cash market. In the above case, loss is limited to Rs. 15 while the gains are unlimited to the buyer.

    Rs. 15 paid is termed as option premium or the cost of purchasing 1 put option containing the pre-determined quantity of the underlying i.e. 250 ONGC equity shares.

    Selling a put option gives the seller the obligation to buy a given quantity of the underlying asset at a given price on or before a given future date, when the right is exercised by the buyer. For a seller of put option, profit is limited to the premium earned while loss it unlimited, as the buyer can exercise his put option anytime till the expiry of contract.

    Source: sptulsian.com
  • What are preferece shares?

    Preference shares are shares in which the owners of the shares are entitled to a fixed dividend or dividend calculated at a fixed rate to be paid regularly before dividend can be paid in respect of equity share. They also enjoy priority over the equity shareholders in payment of surplus. But in the event of liquidation, their claims rank below the claims of the companys creditors, bondholders / debenture holders. In short they get preference over equity shareholders in case of payment of dividends on in case of winding up of the company.
  • What are the relevant regulations and where do I find them?

    The SEBI Manual is SEBI authorized publication that is a comprehensive databank of all relevant Acts, Rules, Regulations and Guidelines that are related to the functioning of the Board. The details pertaining to the Acts, Rules, Regulations, Guidelines and Circulars are placed on the SEBI website under the Legal Framework section. The periodic updates are uploaded onto the SEBI website regularly.
  • What is Commercial Paper?

    Commercial paper is a money market instrument issued normally for tenure of 90 days. It is a short term promise to repay a fixed amount that is placed on the market either directly or through a specialized intermediary. It is usually issued by companies with a high credit standing in the form of a promissory note redeemable at par to the holder on maturity and therefore, doesnt require any guarantee.
  • What is Open book/closed book?

    Presently, in issues made through book building, Issuers and merchant bankers are required to ensure online display of the demand and bids during the bidding period. This is the Open book system of book building. Here, the investor can be guided by the movements of the bids during the period in which the bid is kept open. Under closed book building, the book is not made public and the bidders will have to take a call on the price at which they intend to make a bid without having any information on the bids submitted by other bidders.
  • What is Margin Trading Facility?

    Margin Trading is trading with borrowed funds/securities. It is essentially a leveraging mechanism which enables investors to take exposure in the market over and above what is possible with their own resources. SEBI has been prescribing eligibility conditions and procedural details for allowing the Margin Trading Facility from time to time.

    Corporate brokers with net worth of at least Rs.3 crore are eligible for providing Margin trading facility to their clients subject to their entering into an agreement to that effect. Before providing margin trading facility to a client, the member and the client have been mandated to sign an agreement for this purpose in the format specified by SEBI. It has also been specified that the client shall not avail the facility from more than one broker at any time.

    The facility of margin trading is available for Group 1 securities and those securities which are offered in the initial public offers and meet the conditions for inclusion in the derivatives segment of the stock exchanges.

    For providing the margin trading facility, a broker may use his own funds or borrow from scheduled commercial banks or NBFCs regulated by the RBI. A broker is not allowed to borrow funds from any other source.

    The "total exposure" of the broker towards the margin trading facility should not exceed the borrowed funds and 50 per cent of his "net worth". While providing the margin trading facility, the broker has to ensure that the exposure to a single client does not exceed 10 per cent of the "total exposure" of the broker.

    Initial margin has been prescribed as 50% and the maintenance margin has been prescribed as 40%.

    In addition, a broker has to disclose to the stock exchange details on gross exposure including name of the client, unique identification number under the SEBI (Central Database of Market Participants) Regulations, 2003, and name of the scrip.

    If the broker has borrowed funds for the purpose of providing margin trading facility, the name of the lender and amount borrowed should be disclosed latest by the next day.

    The stock exchange, in turn, has to disclose the scrip-wise gross outstanding in margin accounts with all brokers to the market. Such disclosure regarding margin-trading done on any day shall be made available after the trading hours on the following day.

    The arbitration mechanism of the exchange would not be available for settlement of disputes, if any, between the client and broker, arising out of the margin trading facility. However, all transactions done on the exchange, whether normal or through margin trading facility, shall be covered under the arbitration mechanism of the exchange.
  • What is the main difference between offer of shares through book building and offer of shares through normal public issue?

    Price at which securities will be allotted is not known in case of offer of shares through book building while in case of offer of shares through normal public issue, price is known in advance to investor. In case of Book Building, the demand can be known everyday as the book is built. But in case of the public issue the demand is known at the close of the issue.
  • What is the maximum brokerage that a broker can charge?

    The maximum brokerage that can be charged by a broker has been specified in the Stock Exchange Regulations and hence, it may differ from across various exchanges. As per the BSE & NSE Bye Laws, a broker cannot charge more than 2.5% brokerage from his clients.

stocks glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Acid Test Ratio

    It is the ratio indicated by dividing a company\'s current assets by current liabilities. It reflects the financial strength of a company and hence called Acid test ratio.
  • Alpha

    Alpha measures the difference between a fund\'s actual returns and its expected performance, given its level of risk (as measured by beta). A positive alpha figure indicates the fund has performed better than its beta would predict. In contrast, a negative alpha indicates a fund has underperformed, given the expectations established by the fund\'s beta. Some investors see alpha as a measurement of the value added or subtracted by a fund\'s manager. There are limitations to alpha\'s ability to accurately depict a manager\'s added or subtracted value. In some cases, a negative alpha can result from the expenses that are present in the fund figures but are not present in the figures of the comparison index. Alpha is dependent on the accuracy of beta: If the investor accepts beta as a conclusive definition of risk, a positive alpha would be a conclusive indicator of good fund performance. Of course, the value of beta is dependent on another statistic, known as R-squared.
  • Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    The expenses incurred, during a particular year, by Asset Management Company for managing the funds.
  • Asset Allocation

    The process of diversifying the investments in different kinds of assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, cash in order to optimize risk.
  • Asset Allocation Fund

    A fund that spreads its portfolio among a wide variety of investments, including domestic and foreign stocks and bonds, government securities, gold bullion and real estate stocks. Some of these funds keep the proportions allocated between different sectors relatively constant, while others alter the mix as market conditions change.
  • Asset Management Company (AMC)

    A Company registered with SEBI, which takes investment/divestment decisions for the mutual fund, and manages the assets of the mutual fund.
  • Automatic Investment Plan

    A plan offered by most mutual funds where a small fixed amount is automatically deducted monthly from an investor\'s bank account and invested in the mutual fund of their choice.
  • Automatic Reinvestment

    An investment option for mutual fund unit holders in which the proceeds from either the fund\'s dividends or capital gains, or both, are automatically used to buy more units of the funds.